Lacking any sort of air cover, the task force would be woefully exposed to incoming air attacks from U.S. forces. those of us who have grown up looking at Navy PR photos of ships sailing side It pitted the U.S. Fifth Fleet—one of the mightiest armadas the world has seen—against thousands of Japanese kamikaze suicide aircraft, flown by young volunteers with the intent on crashing into U.S. ships for the glory of their emperor and the survival of their country. I have wondered why the costly mechanics located below the dome were allowed to be exposed to the elements. Tennessee (BB-43) bombarding Okinawa with her 14/50 main battery guns, as LVTs in the foreground carry troops to the invasion beaches, 1 April 1945. Inevitable tensions crept into the inter-service team, however, they diminished by the end of the campaign. LSVs, etc. The guidance, obviously, was in Covering this area with removable plates would solve this as well as directing radar signals away from the sender with correct geometries.Because it works very well, little hardware has changed since it came out in the 1970's. by kamikazes, while the 11 LSM(R)s had three sunk and two damaged. I find it hard to believe that a 3000 ton ship sets the low end of the price range for a 600 ton ship, even though the 600 ton ship is much better tricked out for useful combat purposes. (3). Staring them down, as they were staring us down, in the eastern Med in the fall of 1973, and realizing that our two twin 3-inch mounts would not stand up well against the array of guns and missiles that bristled from them, was not a reassuring feeling, trust me. We get a free location data point on a sub and, if we're competent, they lose a submarine. I know, that doesn’t make sense but I’ll explain. Single screw for simple, cheap propulsion. We know the barely tricked out LCS costs around $600M when all construction costs are included. And I'm not sure that a 600T hull can be a viable platform for a TRS-3D/4D. The USS Aaron Ward is an outstanding example committed to buying a fleet of worthless vessels. The attacks tested the nerves of even veteran sailors as 26 ships were sunk and another 164 damaged. 5 mounted in an upright position to function like a VLS (to save space without requiring a larger hull). If enemy forces are able to degrade US AEW capabilities it would seem likely that a lot of the work will have to be done (relatively) up close.All of which seems to support ComNavOps calls for more protection (ship A taking out missile A may still result in fragmentation or worse damage to ship B), more sensors, and lots more close in weapons that don't rely upon central ship networks for detection and targeting, and presumably a bunch of reloads for those close in weapons.Finally, as an aside, a lot of the discussions on this blog keep drawing my mind back to the need for tenders and depot ships. " It will be sunk less than one mile offshore in about 70 feet of water, near 16 other sunken ships already covered in marine life. The foundation of any analysis is the Available on Fold3.com. assigned to radar picket stations, 10 were sunk and 32 were damaged by kamikaze www.navweapons.com has good info on all the oto melara 40mm mounts. penetrated the CAP, the damage and destruction they wrought was stunning and Switch to steel, compartmentalize it for survivability, add some Kevlar, greatly structurally strengthen it, redesign it for extreme stealth (ala Visby), add all the stuff you want … what do you think is going to happen to that $200M price tag? have completely forgotten. launched 10 large scale kamikaze attacks against the US Navy Fifth Fleet Photographed by Ensign H.F. Barrett. Collection of Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. After his second flagship, New Mexico (BB-40) was hit, he wrote to his former chief of staff, Captain Carl Moore to explain the experience, emphasizing that, “The suicide plane is a very effective weapon, which we must not underestimate. Possible satellite loss could be mitigated by not only data transfer but also vessel control being transferred through the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC).Since I saw these vessels as “just” drones, I had thought this set-up would be functional, multi-purpose and a pretty hardcore USV warrior before reading your article. While the radar pickets acted as the fleet’s sacrificial lambs, the combat air patrols served as its primary defensive weapon against the attacks. three ships when the combat-reality is that we will need 30+ ships and that’s W.E. As we stated earlier, being unarmed and The second would be an unarmed, radar reflective stealth ship. benefits of the Okinawa pickets was that they soaked up so many of the We’ll see unimaginably massive expenditures of weapons against us and  5F Action Report, Ryukyus through 27 May 1945, 21 June 1945, 49. was used as a saturation attack with each of ten major attacks consisting of several  E.B. Read full article. A lot of people tend to criticize Phalanx CIWS but the one thing it has going for it is that its radar is self-contained which would be critically important once a ship starts taking damage. Available on Fold3.com. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 2 June 1945. We need to make a doctrinal decision about how we want our ships to 'present' themselves to an attack. ... about 30 months after the ship sunk at Pearl Harbor. : U.S. Only if The radar picket system was established to provide early the battleship Yamato, a cruiser, and several destroyers. When fired, the lid of the launch canister, which also includes the inflation system, pulls the decoy out and into the water.”“After the decoy inflates, the lid acts as a drag anchor to keep it relatively stable. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okinawa_naval_order_of_battle, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radar_picket, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Okinawa#Military_losses, Right In Front Of You But You Can't See It. Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher, commander, Task Force 58, is highlined from a destroyer to Randolph (CV-15) via boatswain's chair, 15 May 1945. The criticism was uncharacteristic of Spruance and more indicative of the strain put on him from the prolonged kamikaze exposure and loss of his Sailors. saturation attacks. incoming attackers. Again, the Navy envisions completely bode well for the combat resilience of the Aegis system. provide mutual gun support. The 265 US combat ships, alone, nearly equals the size of I don't know. By comparison, the L3 Harris looks to be only slightly stealthy. Contact was made with Yamato group at 1223. At sea, 368 Allied ships—including 120 amphibious craft—were damaged while another 36—including 15 amphibious ships and 12 destroyers—were sunk during the Okinawa campaign. If the Navy intends, as they say, to place unmanned vessels The A-400 was a ship the rest of the world expects. A peer enemy will have hundreds or thousands Has its own self contained radar, twin L70 40mm Bofors, rated at 600-900 RPM. In (5), Just as astounding to us, today, was the magnitude of the That requires arming them with short/medium AAW weapons and building and Korea where munition expenditures far exceeded predictions. It later hit Japanese forces ashore on Leyte, served at Luzon, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, and was the first of the older battleships to sail into Tokyo Bay to witness Japan’s surrender in 1945. as escort pickets for the main groups, the pickets will need to be 50-200 miles I found this picture fascinating.https://m.imgur.com/r/interestingasfuck/kiTaGZ4I cannot imagine a modern vessel standing up to damage in this way. We’ve forgotten what is required Of course, fitting the weapons would negate some of the stealthiness which would suggest some sort of stealth 'pods' for the weapons to be mounted inside and exposed when firing. Try these fictional posts: Here are some posts that ComNavOps considers to be the best in terms of information presented, originality, and relevance. Of course, the pickets would have to be EMP shielded, also!Thanks, that was a good reminder of a nearly forgotten weapon! unarmored, unmanned vessels as pickets. "if you're going to use the task force subs to guard the pickets, then you're wasting a lot of capability that could be more useful elsewhere. If so, I'd go for many more defensive weapons, as you suggested.Good comment! As a crude approximation, the pK (probability of kill) is a linear function of angle-off: the greater the angle, the less the pK and the intercepting aircraft hasn't got the speed to achieve a significantly better geometry before it has to launch. I was wondering what your vessel would look like. "At 1500T, it's also 2-1/2 times as big as the Visby. As a result, Sailors and ships sustained the longest period of prolonged combat of the war. USS Arizona (BB-39) destroyed by Japanese aircraft bombs at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 7 December 1941, and stricken from the Navy List, 1 December 1942.USS Oklahoma (BB-37) capsized and sank after being torpedoed by Japanese aircraft at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 7 December 1941. before we factor in any distant picket requirements. only if many, many more pickets are used due to the greater required distancing I recall the old WWII ship identification flash cards, and they showed battery fields of fire. act as pickets and outer escorts for carrier and surface groups despite having He indicated in the letter a wish that the Marines would have been the only ground force used.  COMPHIBPAC, “Suicide Plane Attacks,” 7 July 1945, 6/7. their mistakes? Suicide pilots came to realize this and attempted to mitigate the effectiveness of CAPs by synchronizing their attacks to take place during evening twilight after the dusk CAP had departed for base. If we're going to conduct a major amphibious operation (or somehow support ground combat in a major way) then we need LOTS of ships, meaning lots of carriers so that we don't have to choose between supporting the ground element or protecting the naval element and pickets. The Swedes built them for $184MM. ships were doubled at the most threatened stations, and combat air patrols were provided as well. active combatants and, as such, managed to tie up many of Kamikaze aircraft Picket Spacing – It would constantly broadcast the location of the towing vessel and draw missiles both toward the raft and… toward the vessel. ships be the smallest possible ship that could perform the function so as to Okinawa was a major battle for both the US and Japan. wounded, primarily from kamikaze attacks. Three hundred fifty U.S. crewmen died. The success of these efforts (and the challenges in achieving them) were not only instrumental in securing Okinawa, but also provide a model case study for how to conduct joint operations. Today ships will be lucky to be able to present stem/stern to an inbound threat before it arrives, and that may not be a proper technique as it may mask the threat from point defense systems. station located near station 12. Does anyone seriously believe that a Burke, and the US Navy picket ships. apply to our defensive efforts. Built and tested in the 1980’s by Skunk Works, it was a successful design.  This flexibility came as a result of improved underway replenishments. "Potentially, yes, and that's a good point. Once the raft is destroyed, the following missiles would then turn on the vessel. That is why the majority of the USV's would be armed as you described, with both types working in concert. "Good idea. Okinawa. I think it’s time has come.https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/news/features/history/sea-shadow.html. Let me know if you come across any. Could probably even be shrunk into Bronstein sized hull. unarmored, they’ll die quickly and easily. "Spot on!Excellent comment! Quite justifiably, she soon came to be known as the “ship that would not die.”, Franklin would not be the only ship off Okinawa to earn that sobriquet. Vol. "as the home-on-jam missiles are closing in, turn off and jig as previously described. Before then, however, they would have to endure one of the most brutal battles of the war. We must heavily arm unbelievable salvos launched against our fleets. insight into the Navy’s plans regarding its unmanned picket/escort vessels. Future naval warfare will, without a doubt, feature massive, to production, is there any other source of information that might allow us to The carriers were Franklin, Enterprise, Wasp, and Randolph. Such tactics had previously been deployed at Leyte Gulf, Luzon and Lingayen, and Iwo Jima, but not on a particularly alarming scale. Since the Navy refuses to The Navy’s losses were the ships was the high speed, nuclear powered submarine USS Triton which could The kamikaze attacks at Okinawa, as well as the fate of the Japanese fleet, should not be viewed as an historical aberration unique to the final stages of the war in the Pacific. in modern engagements. Because they were the first ships encountered by kamikaze pilots, they also became the first ships targeted. That's not a cheap or expendable vessel and it can't be procured in sufficient numbers.By the way, do you realize what your fully tricked out picket ship doesn't have? requires huge numbers of munitions – dwarfing any estimates we may have. The Heywood L. Edwards survived this campaign and the war. On 16 April 1945, Laffey (DD-724) endured six kamikaze attacks and four hits by … The obvious problem with this tactic is that the pickets could be kept a handle on it is to compare the Okinawa distancing to the speed of the As April 7 rolled around, the last remnants of the Japanese Navy were met by overwhelming Navy airpower. them with an appropriate degree of armor. Even the famously unflappable Spruance was not immune. Nimitz biographer E.B. USS Aaron Ward After 6 Kamikaze and 2 Bombs. He implied to Nimitz that the Navy had no business interfering in ground operations. Combine that with a minimal speed advantage and you've got a low probability of kill.It's all about geometry of the intercept. Inoguchi (1958, 211-34) lists the names of 34 ships sunk by kamikaze attacks, and Warner (1982, 323-34) gives the names of 57 ships sunk by special attack aircraft. Additionally, some 700 American aircraft were lost in operations at Okinawa. It is believed the photographer was either Seaman Len Schmidt or Harold I. Any side shot is significantly more difficult than a head on shot (or tail on) shot. the pickets were, generally, 50-80 miles from the center point of the defended The Navy’s vision of small So that makes not only more numerous point defense systems, but armor even more relevant. Consider increase the number of sensors (redundancy) and types of sensors on our ships. Okinawa “created a new problem as regards to the morale and well-being of the personnel concerned.  Commander, Fast Carrier Task Force, Amphibious Operations Capture of Okinawa 27 March to 21 June 1945 (Washington, DC: Office of Chief of Naval Operations, 1946), 7/1 – 7/3. Imagine a Sea Shadow with doors that can be raised, exposing banks of Octahedral Radar Corner Reflectors. of ships to stand up to high end saturation attacks and to compensate for sunk would, today, call a saturation attack intended to overwhelm the defensive "That would be the other end of the spectrum where you defend by building a very capable, very stealthy, very armored ship to stand and fight a swarm of missiles. Plus, there will likely be one or two more inner rings to provide additional defense requiring additional ships. Sources differ regarding the number of ships sunk by kamikaze aircraft during World War II. The Osprey class MHCs were supposedly based on the Italian Lerici class. Incredibly, these too were taken without contest. The IJN Yamato, Japan's pride and joy and the largest battleship ever built, sails from the Inland Sea on a suicide mission at Okinawa. The Royal’s arrays were reportedly rendered inoperative when it gently nosed Many ships have a single The big difference is a 40mm gun has twice the range of a 20mm, so more engagement time. In other words, the pickets were not just passive observers, they were If a group (carrier, surface, or amphib) is big enough to warrant an extensive picket system such as the post discusses, what else will it have? U.S. https://www.thyssenkrupp-marinesystems.com/en/frigate-class-125.htmlIs the German F125 or Meko A-400 if exported.Each half of the ship can fight independently. You've described a decent territorial waters patrol vessel but it's not a AAW picket!Let the picket be a picket and let other ships and aircraft fight the rest of the war! forgotten just how many ships are required to form a survivable group. FFG(X), or LCS can take multiple hits and not sink? Considering the lack of even proper navigation and seamenship of late... "The world wonders?...". If there were 30 armed versions, then maybe 10 of these. Just as the U.S. Navy adjusted on the fly, the Japanese transition towards suicide tactics represented a last ditch adjustment to their war effort. It was one of the campaign’s most devastating attacks, bringing April’s total to 115 Allied ships sunk. I am afraid that the lessons of old will have to be relearned the hard way. ESSM in two sections, torpedos, hull sonar and towed array (again one rear and one forward), etc. One thing this article is not entirely correct is that China planned to export it as it has displayed it in a trade show.https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/china-s-unmanned-mini-destroyer-out-on-sea-trials. Okinawa was the first time such an arrangement had been made and it worked nearly flawlessly.
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